Phospho- Databases:

1. Phospho.ELM/PhosphoBase: The favorite phosphorylation database contains a collection of experimentally verified Serine, Threonine and Tyrosine sites in eukaryotic proteins.

2. an excellent protein kinase gene resource. This site contains analyses of protein kinases from humans and model organisms (yeast, worm and fly).

3. PlantsP: investigates the biology of protein kinases and phosphatases in Arabidopsis Thaliana and other plants.

4. Phosphorylation Site Database: An integrated information of phosphorylation from the literature concerning proteins in prokaryotic organisms with the sequence of the site(s) phosphorylated and the functional consequences of phosphorylation.

5. PhosphoSite: An outstanding curated bioinformatics database that try to aggregate all in vivo phosphorylation sites in human and mouse proteins.

6. Phosphoprotein Database: transform 2DE images from mere collections of spots on gels into images that convey information about cell lineage, the activation state of the cell, the ligands that the cell has encountered, the kinases, phosphatases and substrates present in the cell, and the activation state of these enzymes.

7. Protein Kinase Resource (PKR): a web accessible compendium of information on the protein kinase family of enzymes.

Phosphorylation sites prediction tools:

1. ScanSite: Most popular tool for motif scan, database search and sequence match, etc.

2. NetPhosK: produces neural network predictions of kinase specific eukaryotic protein phosphoylation sites. Currently NetPhosK covers the following kinases: PKA, PKC, PKG, CKII, Cdc2, CaM-II, ATM, DNA PK, Cdk5, p38 MAPK, GSK3, CKI, PKB, RSK, INSR, EGFR and Src.

3. PredPhospho: high accurately predicts phosphorylation sites of protein sequences with SVM (Support Vector Machines), including 4 PKs and 4 PKs families.

4. PhoSite: Prediction of phosphorylation sites by constructing matrices on the fly from PhosphoBase.

5. Predikin: Predikin is a bioinformatics computer program that is able to predict the identity of the substrates of an important class of enzymes known as kinases, with the example predictions.

6. DISPHOS: DISPHOS computationally predicts serine, threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation sites in proteins.

For publication of results, please cite the following article:

1. Yu Xue, Fengfeng Zhou, Minjie Zhu, Guoliang Chen, and Xuebiao Yao. GPS: a comprehensive www server for phosphorylation sites prediction. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jul 1;33(Web Server issue):W184-7.

2. Fengfeng Zhou, Yu Xue, Guoliang Chen, and Xuebiao Yao. GPS: a novel group-based phosphorylation predicting and scoring method. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Dec 24;325(4):1443-8.

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